European Youth Studies


From Youthwiki

Jump to: navigation, search

This is the space to write the wiki article for the team of 5 working on Bradley (2005) on a key concept stemming from the Bradley text.


The new economy produces more losers than winners

With terms like “the new economy produces…” Bradley points out her view from a structural rather than an individual perspective. Being a 'winner' or a 'loser' is the result of labour market trends of the new economy. In the rest of her text she talks about many underlying inequalities and structures (gender, class, ethnicity, education) that have a strong predictive value for ending up as 'winner' or 'loser'. She does not agree with the more individual (meritocratic) point of view that anyone (no matter what background) can turn into a 'winner' as long as the individual tries hard enough.

According to Bradley, being a 'winner' in the new economy means having stable and secure working conditions and having made a succesfull transition to adulthood (financial independence (good wages), starting family life,…) which are determinants "typically made in a top-down way and reflect middle-class norms" (page "4"). Moreover, "people's positions alter dramtically over the life course" (p. "4"). As mentioned in the last chapter, young people do not only see disadvanteges in new labour market conditions as this seems to fit to their flexible life styles.

Opening paragraph: Here you should briefly summarise the most important points covered in your article in such a way that it can stand on its own as a concise version of the article. The reason for your chosen key concept being noteworthy should be established early on. You should define the topic with a neutral point of view, but without being overly specific. You should establish the context in which the topic is being considered. You might want to establish the boundaries of the topic as well. Avoid peacock terms that show off the subject of the article without containing any real information. Similarly, avoid weasel words that offer an opinion without really backing it up, and which are really used to express a non-neutral point of view.

Here are two good examples for an opening paragraph:

“A concept is a cognitive unit of meaning—an abstract idea or a mental symbol sometimes defined as a "unit of knowledge," built from other units which act as a concept's characteristics. A concept is typically associated with a corresponding representation in a language or symbology such as a single meaning of a term.”[1]

“A conceptual framework is used in research to to outline possible courses of action or to present a preferred approach to an idea or thought. Conceptual frameworks (theoretical frameworks) are a type of intermediate theory that attempt to connect to all aspects of inquiry (e.g., problem definition, purpose, literature review, methodology, data collection and analysis). Conceptual frameworks can act like maps that give coherence to empirical inquiry. Because conceptual frameworks are potentially so close to empirical inquiry, they take different forms depending upon the research question or problem.”[2] <math>Insert formula here</math>


1 structure and individual

1.1 Capitalism

1.2 Meritocracy

2 The discourse on winners and losers

2.1 definitions of 'winners' and 'losers'

2.1.1 Who defines 'winners' and 'losers'

2.1 youth unemployment and insufficient working condiditions

2.2 gender, ethnicity, class, education

3 Additional aspects

3.1 The job for life - an obsolete concept

3.2 An adaptable generation?

3.3 If university graduates with precarious jobs are losers, what are early school leaver without any job? (lost?)

Use headings and subheadings to organise your writing. If you have questions about how to create headings and subheadings and how to format text on this page, try our help page on how to co-author a wiki article. We also have a cheat sheet in pdf-format with the most important formatting tricks and tips: Wiki Formatting Cheat Sheet.

Here are two examples of a structure -- first, the Wikipedia article on rationality [3]:

  1. Quality of Rationality
  2. Theories of rationality
  3. Theoretical and practical rationality
  4. Use of the term rational
  5. Rationality and psychotherapy
  6. Rationality and power
  7. References
  8. External links

And second, the Wikipedia article on intercultural competence [4]:

  1. Cross-cultural competence
  2. Basics
  3. Typical examples of cultural differences
  4. Requirements
  5. Cultural differences
  6. Assessment
  7. Criticisms
  8. References
  9. External links


In this section, your references will be automatically listed. You don't need to edit this part of the template, it works automagically.

  1. Wikipedia article on concepts
  2. Wikipedia article on conceptual frameworks
  3. Wikipedia article on rationality
  4. Wikipedia article on intercultural competence

Bradley, H. (2005), ‘Winners and losers: young people in the ‘new economy’, in H. Bradley and J. van Hoof (eds), Young People in Europe: Labour markets and citizenship, Bristol: The Policy Press, pp.99-113.

Further Reading

Add your recommendations for further reading here, if you have any.

External Links

If there any links to external pages you would like to include in the article beyond the actual references listed above, you can add them here.